Excessive fluoride intake during tooth formation in a child can result in changes to the tooth enamel. The effects range from a change in colour, to pitting and roughness of the enamel surface. The degree of severity depends on the amount and duration of exposure to excessive fluoride, the stage of dental development at the time of exposure, and the presence of other chemicals. Dental fluorosis is more common in areas where the drinking water has high concentrations of fluoride. Some locations have high levels of fluoride in the ground water, e.g. near certain mines.
Depending on the degree of severity and its location in the mouth, the affected area may be left untreated, or masked over with a resin filling or a veneer.
See also: Decalcification of enamel